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Purines and Pyrimidines

Purines and Pyrimidines and Other Gout Diet Research

There is lots of research into gout diet, from purines and pyrimidines, through to statistical evaluations of dietary trends and the incidence of gout.

Some research is quite straightforward, some extremely complicated. But all include complex scientific and medical terms. This is because they are written for, and by, the scientific community. In these pages, I present gout diet research papers in layman’s terms. Where I have to include scientific and medical terms, I link them to the gout terms dictionary.

When you understand how food and drink affect gout, it is easier to understand which dietary changes will help your gout treatment program. Also, as there is a great deal of myth and misunderstanding about gout diet, you can learn which information you can safely ignore.

Gout Diet Reports

Purines And Pyrimidines: Gout Food Facts

Investigations into specific foods, or nutrients, and their effect on gout:

Purine Metabolism
Purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Sep 1985. Zöllner. In-depth analysis of different sources of purines and uric acid, differentiating between endogenous purines, from body tissue, and exogenous purines, from diet. Reveals that allopurinol eliminates half of internally generated uric acid, and almost all dietary uric acid.
Gout, Diet & Alcohol Guidelines
Health Professionals Follow-up Study on Gout: What Do We Now Tell Patients About Diet and Alcohol?. May 2004. Robert Terkeltaub. American College of Rheumatology expert state-of-the-art review on relationship between diet, alcohol intake and gout.
Morin: Uricosuric & Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor
The Dual Actions of Morin (3,5,7,2?,4?-Pentahydroxyflavone) as a Hypouricemic Agent: Uricosuric Effect and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity. Jan 2006. Zhifeng Yu et al. Morin, found in figs and other fruit, reduces uric acid in rats.
Milk Good For Gout – Soy Bad
Milk- and soy-protein ingestion: acute effect on serum uric acid concentration. Mar 1991, Garrel DR et al. The uricosuric effect of milk proteins reduce blood uric acid concentration, but with soy protein this effect is offset by the high purine levels.
40 30 30 Gout Diet
Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Jul 2000, Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI, Ramokgadi J.
Tomatoes And Gout Investigation
Mediterranean vegetable soup consumption increases plasma vitamin C and decreases F2-isoprostanes, prostaglandin E2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in healthy humans. Aug 2005, Sánchez-Moreno C, Cano MP, de Ancos B, Plaza L, Olmedilla B, Granado F, Martín A.
Orange Juice and Gout
Orange Juice and Hesperetin Supplementation to Hyperuricemic Rats Alter Oxidative Stress Markers and Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity. Nov 2009, Haidari F, Ali Keshavarz S, Reza Rashidi M, Mohammad Shahi M.
Is Alkaline Diet uricosuric?
Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion. Oct 2010, Aya Kanbara ,Masayuki Hakoda , Issei Seyama
Potential Renal Acid Load
Dietary potential renal acid load and renal net acid excretion in healthy, free-living children and adolescents. May 2003, Remer T, Dimitriou T, Manz F. Report explaining calculation and acceptability of Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL) as an estimate of the alkalizing and acidifying effects of food items. Includes the recommendation that zero PRAL will reduce the risk of uric acid kidney stones forming.
Dietary Protein & Weight Reduction
Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Oct 2001, St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH; Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association.
Iron, Xanthine Oxidase, & Uric Acid
Iron regulates xanthine oxidase activity in the lung. Sep 2002, Andrew J Ghio, Thomas P Kennedy, Jacqueline Stonehuerner, Jacqueline D Carter, Kelly A Skinner, Dale A Parks, John R Hoidal. Observation, and possible explanations for increase in xanthine oxidase followed by uric acid caused by excess iron in the blood.

Purines And Pyrimidines: Gout Food Numbers

Statistical studies about gout in relation to food and drink:

High Purine Foods
Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men. March 2004, Hyon K. Choi et al. Statistical study showing a link between increased meat and fish intake and increased risk of gout. Increased dairy is associated with lower risk of gout, and high purine vegetables have no association with gout.
Obesity And Gout
Obesity, Weight Change, Hypertension, Diuretic Use, and Risk of Gout in Men – The Health Professionals Follow-up Study. 2005, Hyon K. Choi, MD, DrPH; Karen Atkinson, MD, MPH; Elizabeth W. Karlson, MD; Gary Curhan, MD, ScD. A statistical analysis of a large sample of men, including over 700 gout patients.
Uric Acid & Coffee
Inverse association between coffee drinking and serum uric acid concentrations in middle-aged Japanese males. March 1999, C. Kiyohara et al. Compares the average uric acid level amongst groups of men with different levels of coffee consumption.

Purines and Pyrimidines: Next Steps

Armed with your new knowledge about food and drink, it is time to review your own gout diet, and improve it where you can.

If you have not already done so, you should work with your doctor to prepare your personal gout treatment plan. Then review your diet using the guidance in the rest of the Gout Diet pages.

Leave Purines and Pyrimidines to browse other Gout Diet pages.


Foods To Avoid With Gout

For more details of why you need to restrict Calories, Iron, and Purines, see Foods To Avoid With Gout guidelines.

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