Foods High In Uric Acid And Purines

Foods high in uric acid and purines form the conclusion of the High Purine Foods study, which is described below. This concludes the study: Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men.

Your GoutPal Update

I flagged this article for review as part of my project to make this website easier for all gout sufferers. Therefore, I must make it clear that:

  1. This article is aimed at Gout Dieters. Specifically, gout sufferers who are actively monitoring the effects of their diet changes on their uric acid levels. Otherwise, gout sufferers interested in food should start at GoutPal Plan for Gout Foodies.
  2. Gout Dieters should seek high-protein, low-purine foods. But, they must recognize that vegetable purines do not raise uric acid. Because not all foods high in purines can be described as foods high in uric acid.
  3. Individual high protein foods from animals should not be omitted from your diet simply because they are high in purines. Because Gout Dieters must consider total diet and all factors that affect uric acid levels. Especially purine-rich flesh from overweight bodies.

continue reading Foods High In Uric Acid And Purines

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How Purines Affect Gout. Practical Purine Diet Plans

Purines have been at the center of gout diet management for many years.

But is the purine involvement overstated? Worse still, is it wrong?

We all know that gout is caused by excess uric acid, but where does this uric acid come from? There are two sources – some from the food that we eat (external purines), and some from our own natural cell metabolism (internal purines).

As this is the Gout Diet Section, I should focus on purines from food (and drink), but I believe it is important that you understand how our own purines affect gout before we consider the additional purines from meals and snacks.

continue reading How Purines Affect Gout

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Foods High in Uric Acid: Surprisingly Bad!

I used to think that foods high in uric acid were the most important aspect of managing gout diet.

I first published my list of foods high in uric acid on July 22nd, 2007. It took a lot of research to bring the science of purines into one list, and it’s been copied by thousands of websites around the world. At the time, after 2+ years working on this site, I knew more about gout than most people. A fraction of what I know now.


See Foods High in Uric Acid summary.

I soon learned that purine control was not as important as many people suggested. You should never ignore purines from animal flesh. But there are other factors in diet that are more important. I’ve created a better Purine Rich Foods list that focuses on foods that really matter. You can still read my original high purine foods list below. However, it is best used as a historical reference for the way we used to believe diet can affect gout. We now know that vegetable purines have no effect on gout.

Today, I’m making it clear.

This list of foods high in uric acid is never ever going to help your gout, except as an example of what not to do.

I’ll explain why after the chart that you are so desperate to see.

If you just want help now, without wasting any more of your time looking for bad gout foods to avoid, then please ask in the gout forums.

Continue reading Foods High in Uric Acid

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Gout Diet Including Food, Drink & Lifestyle

Gout diet can be complicated, but do not worry.
I am here to make it easy for you to choose food that helps your gout.

Note, it’s YOUR gout diet.

Most of what you read about gout diet does not apply to you.
Gout diet must be personal.

Gout affects everyone differently, and everyone has different tastes.
I urge you to start with what you like to eat.
I will help you find ways to eat your favorite foods that make your gout better.

Everyone seems to think that gout is a disease caused by food. It is not! Your diet can affect gout, but it is only part of the story.

In these gout diet guidelines, I explain all the different ways that food can affect gout – good and bad. These are good reference pages that reflect current scientific research. But if you do not know where to start, then the best place starts with yourself. If you go to the gout forum, tell me some facts about your gout, some ideas about your favorite foods, or some of your worries about what you can eat, I will help you find the right guidelines that suit your situation. That way, you can focus on what matters to you, and safely ignore food facts that are not relevant to your gout. All you need to do is ask about your gout diet in the gout forum.

continue reading Gout Diet

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What Foods Are High In Purines?

What foods are high in purines, is a common question from gout sufferers. If you want a simple answer, you should see my list of Purine Rich Foods.

In this part of the gout diet research guidelines, I review the main study into gout and high purine foods. As it is a big study, I have broken it down to separate parts. This article reviews the methods part of the High Purine Foods study. That link summarizes the report and introduces the study: Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men.

What Foods Are High In Purines? Study Methods

What Foods Are High In Purines? Study Population

The study involved health professionals aged from 40 to 75 in 1986. 49,932 men provided complete dietary, medical history, and medication information. 2782 (5.6 percent) were excluded as they had gout at the beginning, leaving 47,150 participants.

What Foods Are High In Purines? Assessment of Diet

Diets were assessed by reference to intakes of a preprepared list of over 130 food and drink items, updated twice during the course of the study. Full details of these food and drink lists are in separate studies.10-12

What Foods Are High In Purines? Assessment of Covariates

In order to get the best view of the affect of purines on the incidence of gout, it is usual in this type of statistical study to collect data on other factors. This is done to test if the trends shown in the results of the study are due to purines, or some other, confounding, factor. For this study, the authors also collected data on weight, regular medications, and medical conditions.

Ascertainment of New Cases of Gout

Where men reported new cases of gout, they were sent an additional questionnaire to validate their diagnosis of gout against criteria published by the American College of Rheumatology. Gout is considered confirmed if 6 or more from the 11 characteristics are positive:13

  • More than one attack of acute arthritis
  • Maximum inflammation developing within one day
  • Gout attack in four joints or fewer (oligoarthritis)
  • Redness observed over joints
  • Painful or swollen first big toe joint
  • Only one first big toe joint affected
  • Only one foot affected
  • Presence of one or more tophi (singular tophus)
  • Hyperuricemia: Uric acid from blood test results higher than 7mg/dL (0.42 mg/dL)
  • Asymmetric swelling within a joint
  • Complete termination of an attack

The report describes various other procedures used to be as certain as possible that the reported cases were indeed gout.

What Foods Are High In Purines? Statistical Analysis

There are explanations of statistical techniques used that are beyond the scope of this summary14-16. I will confine the summary to describing the types of food included in the survey.

Food items were combined into groups to compute average daily intakes. The food groups used were:

Total meat
Beef, pork, or lamb; processed meat, including sausage, salami, and bologna; bacon; hot dogs; hamburgers; poultry, including chicken and turkey; chicken liver; and beef liver
Total seafood
Tuna; dark fish; other fish; and shrimp, lobster, or scallops
Vegetables high in purines
Peas, beans, lentils, spinach, mushrooms, oatmeal, and cauliflower
Dairy products
Low-fat dairy products, including skim or low-fat milk, sherbet, low-fat yogurt, and cottage or ricotta cheese; high-fat dairy products, including whole milk, cream, butter, sour cream, ice cream, cream cheese, and other cheeses

Each food group was categorized into quintiles – a statistical process where results are ranked in order of average daily intake, and then divided into 5 groups. Statistical adjustments were applied to take account of potentially confounding variables:

  • Energy intake
  • The percentages of energy derived from fat and specific types of protein
  • Age (as a continuous variable)
  • Alcohol use (in seven categories)
  • Body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters, in six categories)
  • The use or not of diuretics
  • History of hypertension (yes or no)
  • History of chronic kidney failure (yes or no)
  • Fluid intake (in quintiles)

What Foods Are High In Purines? Next Steps

Pyrimidines Molecule
What Foods are High in Purines and Pyrimidines?
The methods for this gout study give a good indication of what foods are high in purines. However, the results will show that not all purines are equal. You can see the Purine Rich Foods To Avoid With Gout Results, or return to the High Purine Foods introduction.

Leave What Foods Are High In Purines? to browse other Gout Diet research.

What Foods Are High In Purines? References

  1. Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC. Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:1114-1126
  2. Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:51-65
  3. Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. Reproducibility and validity of food intake measurements from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:790-796
  4. Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, Decker JL, McCarty DJ, Yu TF. Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout. Arthritis Rheum 1977;20:895-900
  5. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1491-1499
  6. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:221-227
  7. Willett W. Nutritional epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
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Purine Rich Foods

Purine rich foods are often said to be the bane of every gout sufferers life.

We are often advised to avoid them completely, or reduce our purine intake.

But do our advisers really understand what they are talking about?

Gout is the only disease for which purines are important, and hundreds of different purine tables have been published. But, none of them make sense in relation to gout.

We know how purines affect gout, so publishing tables of every food that contains even the slightest trace of purines is pointless. If not pointless for reasons of completeness, it is certainly pointless for planning a gout diet. In fact, for gout diet planning, it is vital to only focus on those purines that are going to make a difference.

Scientists have known for decades that there are different kinds of purines, and that each has a different action when taken as part of your diet. This involves complicated processes that can vary from person to person, so even the best analysis of relevant purine rich foods can only produce an estimate that should be confirmed with uric acid blood tests.

Zollner’s analysis of purine metabolism suggests that xanthine and hypoxanthine are the most effective purines for increasing uric acid. I refer to these as “Gout Purines” and I have restricted the purine rich foods table to those compounds.

Recent research from Japan describes the purine content of more foods. I will use that information to extend and improve the Purine Rich Food Table below. I have started to list these foods at Is Very Low Purine Gout Diet Possible. My review of purine food charts is coming soon. Please subscribe to my update service below to get email notification when I upgrade my purine food charts.

Purine Rich Foods Table

Food 100g Kcal Iron
Gout Purines
ANCHOVY 101 4.90 6 82 88 20 12
COD 77 0.32 66 66 18 8
HADDOCK 77 0.61 95 95 18 8
HALIBUT 95 0.55 104 104 20 7
HERRING ROE 131 7 65 72 26 8
MACKEREL SMOKED 222 1.20 94 94 21 13
MATJE CURED HERRING 267 1.30 133 133 16 14
MUSSEL 68 4.20 2 25 27 11 5
PLAICE 86 0.90 51 51 17 8
REDFISH (OCEAN PERCH) 105 0.69 149 149 18 9
SAITHE (COALFISH) 81 1.00 3 104 107 18 12
SPRAT (SMOKED) 222 0.70 16 191 207 19 11
TROUT 103 0.41 11 117 128 20 10
TUNA 226 1.00 178 178 22 8
BEEF 108 2.10 197 69 266 22 10
CALF (NECK SWEET BREAD) 99 2.00 51 91 142 17 0
CALF´S LIVER 130 7.90 65 54 119 19 13
CHICKEN 257 1.20 91 91 17 10
LAMB 117 1.60 1 99 100 21 4
LIVER SAUSAGE (LIVERWURST) 326 5.30 12 61 73 16 10
LUNCHEON MEAT 267 2.20 1 32 33 15 9
OX HEART 121 4.00 4 129 133 17 9
OX KIDNEY 113 11.00 21 150 172 17 13
OX LIVER 132 6.90 57 114 171 19 15
OX LUNGS (LIGHTS) 99 8.80 9 35 44 18 13
OX SPLEEN 100 8.90 17 54 71 19 10
PIG´S HEART 91 4.30 367 367 17 9
PIG´S KIDNEY 101 7.30 8 78 86 17 12
PIG´S LIVER 127 17.00 32 100 132 21 18
PIG´S LUNGS (LIGHTS) 114 5.00 4 79 83 14 10
PIG´S SPLEEN 102 19.00 3 75 78 17 7
PORK 105 1.00 2 93 95 22 9
SHEEP´S HEART 157 6.10 3 71 74 17 8
SHEEP´S SPLEEN 108 14 104 118 18 9
VEAL 92 2.10 11 101 112 21 10
ALCOHOL FREE BEER 25 0.02 0 1 1 0 0
BAKER´S YEAST 78 3.50 10 126 136 17 11
CHANTERELLE 11 1 1 2 -4
LIMBURGER CHEESE 184 13 13 26 12
MUSHROOM 16 1.20 1 1 2 4 -2
PILSENER LAGER BEER 42 0.01 2 2 3 1 0
REAL BEER (LIGHT) 39 0.04 2 2 4 1 0

Please note:

  1. I took the data in this table from Food Composition and Nutrition Tables by Souci, Fachmann, Kraut.
  2. Values are for 100g. Divide by 100 and multiply by your portion size for your diet analysis.
  3. Figures are averages of several tests – natural products will vary, and cooking methods can affect final results.
  4. Though this is a list of purine rich foods, many foods are not high enough to worry about. You can ignore any foods that contribute less than 50mg Uric Acid per meal. If you are not sure, please describe the ingredients of your meal in the gout forum, then I can tell you if you should ignore the purine content, or try to reduce it. If you cannot access the gout forum, please use the form at the end of this page, or click the orange Gout Support button.
  5. Never forget that animal purines also exist in the flesh of your body. Excess flesh means more uric acid
  6. There are other dietary problems that are worse than purines for many gout sufferers. I’ve written more about this in other pages within these gout diet guidelines

If you are serious about measuring the impact of purine rich foods in your gout diet, you must verify expected values from the tables with actual effects from your own uric acid tests.

Leave Purine Rich Foods to browse the Gout Diet Guidelines

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Food High In Uric Acid: The Mythical Beast That Still Haunts Gouties

Back in the mists of time (OK – 2005), I began my quest for food high in uric acid.

Sages spoke of the Land Of Plentiful Purines where gouties were banished to live out their days in exquisite swollen torture.

Then, came wise men from the East proclaiming that all was not as it seemed in GoutWorld…

To put it another way.

When most medics practicing today were in med school, the dietary control of gout was very simple: no high purine foods; limited medium purine foods; and unlimited low purine foods.

Then research in the 1970s and 80s began to question the simplicity of this view:

purine sources differ in their absorption rates, a fact not taken into account in our food tables.

[…] In summary it can be concluded that dietary purines are absorbed to a variable extent, depending on the degree of hydrolysis to nucleosides and/or nucleotides, and that they are oxidized to uric acid in the gut and excreted as uric acid, which is bad for gout but without influence on purine metabolism.

Read the myth of food high in uric acid

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