Foods High In Uric Acid And Purines

Foods high in uric acid and purines form the conclusion of the High Purine Foods study, which is described below. This concludes the study: Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men.

Your GoutPal Update

I flagged this article for review as part of my project to make this website easier for all gout sufferers. Therefore, I must make it clear that:

  1. This article is aimed at Gout Dieters. Specifically, gout sufferers who are actively monitoring the effects of their diet changes on their uric acid levels. Otherwise, gout sufferers interested in food should start at GoutPal Plan for Gout Foodies.
  2. Gout Dieters should seek high-protein, low-purine foods. But, they must recognize that vegetable purines do not raise uric acid. Because not all foods high in purines can be described as foods high in uric acid.
  3. Individual high protein foods from animals should not be omitted from your diet simply because they are high in purines. Because Gout Dieters must consider total diet and all factors that affect uric acid levels. Especially purine-rich flesh from overweight bodies.

continue reading Foods High In Uric Acid And Purines

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Foods High in Uric Acid: Surprisingly Bad!

I used to think that foods high in uric acid were the most important aspect of managing gout diet.

I first published my list of foods high in uric acid on July 22nd 2007. It took a lot of research to bring the science of purines into one list, and it’s been copied by thousands of websites around the world. At the time, after 2+ years working on this site, I knew more about gout than most people. A fraction of what I know now.


See Foods High in Uric Acid summary.

I soon learned that purine control was not as important as many people suggested. You should never ignore purines from animal flesh. But there are other factors in diet that are more important. I’ve created a better Purine Rich Foods list that focuses on foods that really matter. You can still read my original high purine foods list below. However, it is best used as a historic reference for the way we used to believe diet can affect gout. We now know that vegetable purines have no effect on gout.

Today, I’m making it clear.

This list of foods high in uric acid is never ever going to help your gout, except as an example of what not to do.

I’ll explain why after the chart that you are so desperate to see.

If you just want help now, without wasting any more of your time looking for bad gout foods to avoid, then please ask in the gout forums.

Continue reading Foods High in Uric Acid

Gout Diet Foods To Eat: Theobromine and Gout

Theobromine and gout is #87 in the Gout and You series, the top gout topics based on searches by GoutPal visitors.

Theobromine is interesting because it comes top of the foods high in uric acid list. However, this is more an anomaly about how purines are measured, rather than the ability of theobromine foods to create uric acid.

The most significant fact is: theobromine is not a food. Try ordering theobromine cake! However, if you order chocolate cake, chances are you will be getting a good helping of theobromine contained within in. As you can see from the list of theobromine foods below, chocolate and cocoa are the main sources, with tea bringing up the rear.

So, if theobromine is not a food, what is it? It belongs to a class of organic compounds called methylxanthines. These are very closely related to purines, and to xanthine oxidase (XO). XO is the enzyme that causes purines to breakdown to uric acid. Because all these substances are very closely related, measurement of total purines gets distorted. We have seen that total purines are not relevant, because vegetable purines do not readily convert to uric acid. That is why my purine rich foods table is much more relevant to gout sufferers. So, theobromine, as a vegetable purine, should not readily convert to uric acid.

Indeed, it does not, but there is a much more interesting fact about theobromine and uric acid.

Read the startling fact about Theobromine and Gout

Cherry Juice For Gout

These cherry juice for gout guidelines explain how cherries in your diet can help you cope with gout.

Cherry Juice For Gout Introduction

Cherries have been recognized as beneficial to gout sufferers for many years, but not without controversy.

Whilst some gout sufferers rely on them, others claim no benefit. Some of this might be due to an unscientific approach, but even the science is unclear. Some studies claim a reduction in uric acid from cherry juice, others claim that cherries only have anti-inflammatory properties.

Until more conclusive scientific evidence is available that relies on data from confirmed gout patients, we are left wondering. Fortunately, cherry juice is widely available, so you can easily try it yourself. If you do, please be sure to share your experience in the gout forum.

I have reviewed several investigations into cherries and cherry juice for gout.

Gout And Cherries History

Though it is generally regarded that Blau started the interest in gout and cherries, I have seen one earlier reference and it implies a much earlier acceptance that cherries are good for gout. Prior to the widespread availability of commercially produced fruit juices, many gout investigators showed interest in different fruits and their effects on gout.

In 1921, Richard Llewellyn Jones Llewellyn wrote in his book, Gout:

Peaches and nectarines, on the other hand, are eminently suitable for the ” gouty,” also apples, pears, oranges, grapes, cherries, etc. […]

Weiss noted that the addition to an ordinary diet of 1 lb, of strawberries, 1 lb. cherries, or 2 lb. of grapes, diminishes the amount of uric acid excreted by almost 50 per cent.

30 years later, Blau published Cherry diet control for gout and arthritis (Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine 1950 Vol. 8 pp. 309-311):

In 12 patients with gout and arthritis the uric acid content of the blood was reduced to normal by the daily consumption of about 1/2 Ib. fresh or canned cherries.

The active principle in cherries has not been identified.

Duskis reviews Blau and others in Groceries: How to Use Them for Any Good Reason!: A Compilation with lists of other foods reputed to help gout.

But controversy surrounds the ability of cherries, and other fruits, to lower uric acid.

In 2009, whilst researching the impact of strawberries on human health, Tulipani notes the highly individual affects of strawberries on uric acid, and questions other claims that cherries may reduce uric acid.

Cherries, Cherry Juice & Gout Studies

I am in the process of compiling summaries of the following gout studies about cherries and cherry juice:

  • Antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities of anthocyanins and their aglycon, cyanidin, from tart cherries. Journal of natural products 1999 May;62(5):802.
  • Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine. 2001 Sep;8(5):362-9.
  • Jun 2003 Consumption of Cherries Lowers Plasma Urate in Healthy Women
  • 2006 Consumption of Bing Sweet Cherries Lowers Circulating Concentrations of Inflammation Markers in Healthy Men and Women
  • Feb 2012 Pilot Studies of Cherry Juice Concentrate for Gout Flare Prophylaxis
  • Sep 2012 Cherry consumption and the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

Please subscribe to my free gout information update service so I can let you know when I publish the cherry juice and gout studies.

Cherry Juice Gout Treatment

When deciding if you want to use cherry juice as part of your gout treatment, it is worth noting that you can use any of the different types of cherry juice including:

  • Fresh Cherries
  • Tinned or bottled cherries
  • Cherry juice
  • Cherry concentrate
  • Cherry extract

Whilst there is doubt over the true effects of cherry juice for gout, you must be careful how you use cherries in your treatment plan.

It is now best medical practice to lower uric acid for any gout patient who has:

  • Two or more attacks in one year
  • Tophi
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • History of kidney stones

You might try a daily cherry juice gout treatment to lower uric acid. There is insufficient evidence to recommend how much you should take, or how long it takes to reduce uric acid, if at all. If uric acid is not lowered to 5mg/dL after 3 months, you should discuss other options with your doctor.

There is stronger evidence that cherry juice relieves or helps avoid painful inflammation. Therefore, a cherry juice gout treatment might be beneficial during the first few months of uric acid lowering therapy.

It is irresponsible to use a cherry juice gout treatment without checking uric acid at least once per month. Once you are sure that uric acid has stabilized at 5mg/dL (0.30mmol/L) then you can test less frequently, but never less than once per year.

Leave Cherry Juice For Gout to browse the Gout Remedy Guidelines

Natural Gout Cures To Lower Uric Acid

The best gout cures must permanently lower uric acid.

Many substances inhibit uric acid production, promote uric acid excretion, or both. Here we look at non-pharmaceutical gout cures that lower uric acid.

By including these in a comprehensive gout treatment plan, you might improve your uric acid level, but you must make sure it is never above 5mg/dL (0.30mmol/L).

This part of the Gout Treatment Section looks at non-medical products that reduce uric acid. Other pages look at pain relief, but you must control uric acid first, as this is the only way to prevent pain from getting worse.

Gout Cures Reduce Uric Acid
Unlike medical urate lowering therapies, research into natural products that lower uric acid is less frequent, and the results are often difficult to apply to real world situations. In most cases, you might have to try different changes to your diet, then check the results. You can only do this if you have your own uric acid test meter, or have frequent tests from your doctor.

Do not try to judge the effect of gout cures by your pain levels – you can experience gout flares when uric acid levels are falling.

Before you consider individual gout cures, you must read the introduction to natural gout cures that lower uric acid.

I have graded the scientific research into 3 groups:

  1. Human research
  2. Animal Research
  3. Laboratory and theoretical studies

Gout Cures Research In Humans

Gout Cures Study Name Description
Milk Protein Milk- and soy-protein ingestion: acute effect on serum uric acid concentration. This is a scientific study using protein products mixed with water rather than natural milk. Three proteins were tested: casein (also available from mammalian milk & cheese), lactalbumin (also available from mammalian milk and whey), and soy protein (also available from soy protein). All three proteins increased the amount of uric acid excreted in urine (i.e. they are natural uricosurics). However, only casein and lactalbumin lowered uric acid in the blood, whereas soy protein increased it. See Which Milk Is Good For Gout? for more information.
Vitamin C The Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation on Serum Concentrations of Uric Acid. This was a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted on 184 people taking 500mg vitamin C supplement, or a placebo, for 2 months. The study showed an average reduction in uric acid of 0.5mg/dL (0.03mmol/L), however this reduction was higher where the starting uric acid was higher, and reduction of 1mg/dL (0.06mmol/L) was recorded where average starting uric acid was 7.2mg/dL (0.43mmol/L). See the complete gout and vitamin c study for more information.

There are 2 issues to consider here. Firstly, the study was not targeted at gout sufferers, so most volunteers were outside the risk of gout, or at quite a low risk – it would be nice to see a similar study on gout sufferers with a minimum starting uric acid level of 7mg/dL (0.42mmol/L). More importantly, 2 months is not long enough. Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, and excess iron can increase the risk of gout. If you are considering vitamin C supplementation, you should consult a nutritionist to assess your risk of excess iron, and if taking the supplement at certain times of day can mitigate any such risk.

Gout Cures Research In Animals

Gout Cures Study Name Description
Morin The Dual Actions of Morin (3,5,7,2′,4′-Pentahydroxyflavone) as a Hypouricemic Agent: Uricosuric Effect and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity Morin is a flavonol similar to quercetin. It is found in figs and other fruit. It is abundant in White Mulberry (Morus Alba), which is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat gout-like symptoms. This study found that morin reduces uric acid in rats by promoting excretion of uric acid (like probenecid) and inhibiting xanthine oxidase (like allopurinol). See the complete figs and gout study for more information.

Laboratory & Theoretical Studies

Gout Cures Study Name Description
Celery Seed Extract Effect Of Celery Seed Extract on Hyperuricemia in Rats. Celery seed extract is popular with many gout sufferers. See the effects on uric acid, inflammation, and kidney function. But beware the dangers of wrong dose.
Resveratrol Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect on DNA Cleavage of Resveratrol
Resveratrol Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Investigation
Click for Resveratrol Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor details
An investigation into the effects of resveratrol on xanthine oxidase in rats.

Gout Cures: Next Steps

These gout cures will vary in effectiveness from person to person. You cannot judge their effectiveness without knowing your uric acid level, so arrange for a doctors test, or buy a home test kit now. A home test kit is particularly useful for testing the cures listed above, whether taken as supplements or in foods. You need patience to use a uric acid meter, but it can help you to understand how food and drink items from uric acid foods lists affect you personally.

The gout cures listed above are shown to lower uric acid, and some might also have anti-inflammatory properties. For the first few months of urate lowering therapy, you might need additional pain relief. These are listed in different areas of this Gout Treatment section.

If you are not sure which gout cures can help you lower uric acid, you can get more help in the gout forum.

Leave Gout Cures to read the rest of the Gout Treatments Section.

Tomatoes And Gout

Tomatoes and Gout: Gazpacho

One day, I hear that tomatoes and gout are good together. The next day I hear tomatoes are bad for gout.

The truth is that tomatoes are tasty and this delicious gout diet recipe is scientifically proven to lower uric acid.

Tomatoes And Gout Warning

Many people with gout avoid tomatoes, claiming they cause gout. There are two possible reasons for this.

  1. Allergic reaction
  2. Uric acid lowering effect

An allergic reaction might cause an inflammatory response that could aggravate gout. If you have this type of allergy, you should avoid this recipe.

The study that I have adapted this recipe from showed that daily consumption of this soup lowers uric acid. Although this was only 1 – 1.2mg/dL (0.06 – 0.07 mmol/L), if your level is, say 7 – 8mg/dL (0.42 – 0.48 mmol/L), the drop might be enough to cause some urate crystals to start dissolving. This causes the same reaction as when you are taking urate lowering medication – as the crystals dissolve, they can trigger a gout attack. For this reason, many gout patients on urate lowering therapies are also given pain relief such as colchicine or NSAIDs. I have written a fuller explanation of this in my article on allopurinol medication.

Tomatoes And Gout Recipe: Gazpacho For Gout

Tomatoes form about half of this gazpacho recipe. There are thousands of different gazpacho recipes. This one is a simple one, based on an experiment that proved that high-antioxidant gout diet recipes can lower uric acid.

In this experiment, the gazpacho was served in two 250ml portions as a snack, morning and afternoon. This is very much in keeping with my gout diet plan. A healthy snack between meals makes you less likely to fill your plate at meal time, and less likely to refill it with seconds. Little and often is the GoutPal way. Make the most of it with this cold soup.

I present the recipe as near to the original form as I can, but you should adapt and improve it to your taste. I find that just adding a teaspoon or two of Tabasco, or other chili sauce improves the flavor, and the antioxidants.

I have calculated quantities to make about one liter, which will last for two days with two snacks per day. If you improve it, please send me your version, and share your experience of tomatoes and gout.


Food Qty. Measure Note
Tomatoes 2 cups approx 2 large tomatoes
Cucumber 2/3 cup approx 3″ slice of standard size cucumber
Green Pepper 1/2 cup 1 small pepper, might be slightly less than 1/2 cup
Onion – chopped 2 tbsp approx. half medium onion
Garlic 1 or 2 cloves to taste
Salt 1 tsp to taste
Extra Virgin Olive Oil 4 tsp
Wine Vinegar 4 tsp
Sugar 1 tsp to taste
Water 3/4 cup use more or less for thinner or thicker soup


  1. Wash and roughly chop all vegetables.
  2. Place chopped vegetables in blender with all liquids. Blitz until smooth.
  3. Add salt and sugar to taste.
  4. Pour into airtight container, seal and refrigerate overnight to infuse flavors.
  5. Serve one quarter of the soup as a snack mid morning and mid afternoon.

Leave this Tomatoes And Gout page to read more gout food recipes, …

… or, browse the Gout Diet Section to learn more aspects of gout food.

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Join the Tomatoes and Gout discussion.

Do you have a recipe for gout and tomatoes? Do you have any questions about gout and tomatoes? Please discuss tomatoes and gout in GoutPal’s Gout Forum.

Tomatoes And Gout: Document History

Date Revision
Jun 15, 2011 (first archive). First Published.
Oct 17, 2016 (archive). Flagged for review (and temporary image added). Please discuss tomatoes and gout in GoutPal’s Gout Forum

If you see other gout pages that I should improve, please suggest a GoutPal page review.