Foods High In Uric Acid And Purines

Foods high in uric acid and purines form the conclusion of the High Purine Foods study, which is described below. This concludes the study: Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men.

Your GoutPal Update

I flagged this article for review as part of my project to make this website easier for all gout sufferers. Therefore, I must make it clear that:

  1. This article is aimed at Gout Dieters. Specifically, gout sufferers who are actively monitoring the effects of their diet changes on their uric acid levels. Otherwise, gout sufferers interested in food should start at GoutPal Plan for Gout Foodies.
  2. Gout Dieters should seek high-protein, low-purine foods. But, they must recognize that vegetable purines do not raise uric acid. Because not all foods high in purines can be described as foods high in uric acid.
  3. Individual high protein foods from animals should not be omitted from your diet simply because they are high in purines. Because Gout Dieters must consider total diet and all factors that affect uric acid levels. Especially purine-rich flesh from overweight bodies.

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Foods High in Uric Acid: Surprisingly Bad!

I used to think that foods high in uric acid were the most important aspect of managing gout diet.

I first published my list of foods high in uric acid on July 22nd, 2007. It took a lot of research to bring the science of purines into one list, and it’s been copied by thousands of websites around the world. At the time, after 2+ years working on this site, I knew more about gout than most people. A fraction of what I know now.


See Foods High in Uric Acid summary.

I soon learned that purine control was not as important as many people suggested. You should never ignore purines from animal flesh. But there are other factors in diet that are more important. I’ve created a better Purine Rich Foods list that focuses on foods that really matter. You can still read my original high purine foods list below. However, it is best used as a historical reference for the way we used to believe diet can affect gout. We now know that vegetable purines have no effect on gout.

Today, I’m making it clear.

This list of foods high in uric acid is never ever going to help your gout, except as an example of what not to do.

I’ll explain why after the chart that you are so desperate to see.

If you just want help now, without wasting any more of your time looking for bad gout foods to avoid, then please ask in the gout forums.

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Gout Diet Foods To Eat: Theobromine and Gout

Theobromine and gout is #87 in the Gout and You series, the top gout topics based on searches by GoutPal visitors.

Theobromine is interesting because it comes top of the foods high in uric acid list. However, this is more an anomaly about how purines are measured, rather than the ability of theobromine foods to create uric acid.

The most significant fact is: theobromine is not a food. Try ordering theobromine cake! However, if you order chocolate cake, chances are you will be getting a good helping of theobromine contained within in. As you can see from the list of theobromine foods below, chocolate and cocoa are the main sources, with tea bringing up the rear.

So, if theobromine is not a food, what is it? It belongs to a class of organic compounds called methylxanthines. These are very closely related to purines, and to xanthine oxidase (XO). XO is the enzyme that causes purines to breakdown to uric acid. Because all these substances are very closely related, measurement of total purines gets distorted. We have seen that total purines are not relevant, because vegetable purines do not readily convert to uric acid. That is why my purine rich foods table is much more relevant to gout sufferers. So, theobromine, as a vegetable purine, should not readily convert to uric acid.

Indeed, it does not, but there is a much more interesting fact about theobromine and uric acid.

Read the startling fact about Theobromine and Gout

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Cherry Juice For Gout

These cherry juice for gout guidelines explain how cherries in your diet can help you cope with gout.

Cherry Juice For Gout Introduction

Cherries have been recognized as beneficial to gout sufferers for many years, but not without controversy.

Whilst some gout sufferers rely on them, others claim no benefit. Some of this might be due to an unscientific approach, but even the science is unclear. Some studies claim a reduction in uric acid from cherry juice, others claim that cherries only have anti-inflammatory properties.

Until more conclusive scientific evidence is available that relies on data from confirmed gout patients, we are left wondering. Fortunately, cherry juice is widely available, so you can easily try it yourself. If you do, please be sure to share your experience in the gout forum.

I have reviewed several investigations into cherries and cherry juice for gout.

Gout And Cherries History

Though it is generally regarded that Blau started the interest in gout and cherries, I have seen one earlier reference and it implies a much earlier acceptance that cherries are good for gout. Prior to the widespread availability of commercially produced fruit juices, many gout investigators showed interest in different fruits and their effects on gout.

In 1921, Richard Llewellyn Jones Llewellyn wrote in his book, Gout:

Peaches and nectarines, on the other hand, are eminently suitable for the ” gouty,” also apples, pears, oranges, grapes, cherries, etc. […]

Weiss noted that the addition to an ordinary diet of 1 lb, of strawberries, 1 lb. cherries, or 2 lb. of grapes, diminishes the amount of uric acid excreted by almost 50 per cent.

30 years later, Blau published Cherry diet control for gout and arthritis (Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine 1950 Vol. 8 pp. 309-311):

In 12 patients with gout and arthritis the uric acid content of the blood was reduced to normal by the daily consumption of about 1/2 Ib. fresh or canned cherries.

The active principle in cherries has not been identified.

Duskis reviews Blau and others in Groceries: How to Use Them for Any Good Reason!: A Compilation with lists of other foods reputed to help gout.

But controversy surrounds the ability of cherries, and other fruits, to lower uric acid.

In 2009, whilst researching the impact of strawberries on human health, Tulipani notes the highly individual affects of strawberries on uric acid, and questions other claims that cherries may reduce uric acid.

Cherries, Cherry Juice & Gout Studies

I am in the process of compiling summaries of the following gout studies about cherries and cherry juice:

  • Antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities of anthocyanins and their aglycon, cyanidin, from tart cherries. Journal of natural products 1999 May;62(5):802.
  • Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine. 2001 Sep;8(5):362-9.
  • Jun 2003 Consumption of Cherries Lowers Plasma Urate in Healthy Women
  • 2006 Consumption of Bing Sweet Cherries Lowers Circulating Concentrations of Inflammation Markers in Healthy Men and Women
  • Feb 2012 Pilot Studies of Cherry Juice Concentrate for Gout Flare Prophylaxis
  • Sep 2012 Cherry consumption and the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

Please subscribe to my free gout information update service so I can let you know when I publish the cherry juice and gout studies.

Cherry Juice Gout Treatment

When deciding if you want to use cherry juice as part of your gout treatment, it is worth noting that you can use any of the different types of cherry juice including:

  • Fresh Cherries
  • Tinned or bottled cherries
  • Cherry juice
  • Cherry concentrate
  • Cherry extract

Whilst there is doubt over the true effects of cherry juice for gout, you must be careful how you use cherries in your treatment plan.

It is now best medical practice to lower uric acid for any gout patient who has:

  • Two or more attacks in one year
  • Tophi
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • History of kidney stones

You might try a daily cherry juice gout treatment to lower uric acid. There is insufficient evidence to recommend how much you should take, or how long it takes to reduce uric acid, if at all. If uric acid is not lowered to 5mg/dL after 3 months, you should discuss other options with your doctor.

There is stronger evidence that cherry juice relieves or helps avoid painful inflammation. Therefore, a cherry juice gout treatment might be beneficial during the first few months of uric acid lowering therapy.

It is irresponsible to use a cherry juice gout treatment without checking uric acid at least once per month. Once you are sure that uric acid has stabilized at 5mg/dL (0.30mmol/L) then you can test less frequently, but never less than once per year.

Leave Cherry Juice For Gout to browse the Gout Remedy Guidelines

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Natural Gout Cures To Lower Uric Acid

The best gout cures must permanently lower uric acid.

Many substances inhibit uric acid production, promote uric acid excretion, or both. Here we look at non-pharmaceutical gout cures that lower uric acid.

By including these in a comprehensive gout treatment plan, you might improve your uric acid level, but you must make sure it is never above 5mg/dL (0.30mmol/L).

This part of the Gout Treatment Section looks at non-medical products that reduce uric acid. Other pages look at pain relief, but you must control uric acid first, as this is the only way to prevent pain from getting worse.

continue reading Natural Gout Cures To Lower Uric Acid

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Tomatoes And Gout

Tomatoes and Gout: Gazpacho

One day, I hear that tomatoes and gout are good together. The next day I hear tomatoes are bad for gout.

The truth is that tomatoes are tasty and this delicious gout diet recipe is scientifically proven to lower uric acid.

Tomatoes And Gout Warning

Many people with gout avoid tomatoes, claiming they cause gout. There are two possible reasons for this.

  1. Allergic reaction
  • Uric acid lowering effect
  • An allergic reaction might cause an inflammatory response that could aggravate gout. If you have this type of allergy, you should avoid this recipe.

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